Reassessing the Incumbency Effect

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Moreover, light scatter causes a decrease in contrast sensitivity, which causes difficulty with judging distances, driving at night, and mobility. The degradation of contrast sensitivity explains why patients with floaters are unhappy and complain bitterly to a heretofore unmoved medical profession. However, with this new understanding of how vision is affected by floaters, and with the ability to quantify these effects, clinicians now have the ability to change the management of floaters for the better.

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Cambridge Core - American Government, Politics and Policy - Reassessing the Incumbency Effect - by Jeffrey M. Stonecash. Reassessing the Incumbency Effect. $ (C). Author: Jeffrey M. Stonecash, Syracuse University, New York. Date Published: September ; availability: In .

One proposed therapeutic approach to managing eyes with floaters is to perform vitreolysis with an Nd:YAG laser; however, the efficacy of this application is controversial. Vitrectomy provides a definitive cure to floaters, although the surgery is not without risk, albeit quite minimal. Pars plana vitrectomy has been associated with the development of cataract, endophthalmitis, retinal tears and detachments, glaucoma, vitreoretinal hemorrhage, and macular edema.

It should be noted that modern gauge instrumentation and techniques help reduce the risks of these surgical complications. Pars plana vitrectomy can be both effective and safe as a means of resolving floaters.

A number of studies demonstrate that successful PPV improves functional measures of straylight and contrast sensitivity. Mura et al showed that measurements of straylight improved after vitrectomy, and patients experienced improvements in facial recognition and glare hindrance. In addition to these clinical results, several studies indicate a significant improvement in patient quality of life following PPV to address floaters.

Delaney et al reported complete resolution of floater-related symptoms in Another study reported an overall low rate of retinal detachment following PPV that increased slightly during long-term follow up. One vitreous hemorrhage cleared spontaneously after 2 weeks. The mean age was 61 years, and no patients under the age of 53 developed cataract. As such, it is incumbent upon ophthalmic surgeons to offer safe and effective management of this condition. Current evidence supports the use of minimally invasive PPV. Future surgical improvements will make PPV for floaters an even safer and more effective therapeutic approach, while the development of optical methods to counteract or neutralize the visual effects of floaters will provide other options.

The application of pharmacologic vitreolysis is intriguing, although not without the potential to worsen floaters in some eyes. He may be reached at jsebag VMRinstitute.

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However, it is expected that many of these stations could be impacted by our proposed rules. Mobile Satellite Earth Stations. There are 19 licensees. We do not request nor collect annual revenue information, and are unable to estimate the number of mobile satellite earth stations that would constitute a small business under the SBA definition. Wireless Telecommunications Carriers except satellite.

This industry comprises establishments engaged in operating and maintaining switching and transmission facilities to provide communications via the airwaves.

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Establishments in this industry have spectrum licenses and provide services using that spectrum, such as cellular phone services, paging services, wireless Internet access, and wireless video services. The size standard for that category is that a business is small if it has 1, or fewer employees.

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Licenses Assigned by Auctions. Initially, we note that, as a general matter, the number of winning bidders that qualify as small businesses at the close of an auction does not necessarily represent the number of small businesses currently in service. Also, the Commission does not generally track subsequent business size unless, in the context of assignments or transfers, unjust enrichment issues are implicated.

Paging Services. However, a variety of paging services is now categorized under Wireless Telecommunications Carriers except satellite.

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Illustrative examples in the paging context include paging services, except satellite; two-way paging communications carriers, except satellite; and radio paging services communications carriers. The SBA has deemed a paging service in this category to be small if it has 1, or fewer employees. Of the 2, licenses auctioned, were sold. Of the 15, licenses auctioned, 5, were sold. A third auction, consisting of 8, licenses in each of EAs and 1, licenses in all but three of the 51 MEAs, was held in Seventy-seven bidders claiming small or very small business status won 2, licenses.

This service can be used for fixed, mobile, radiolocation, and digital audio broadcasting satellite uses. In the auction, seven bidders that qualified as very small business entities won 31 licenses, and one bidder that qualified as a small business entity won a license. This service can be used for fixed and mobile uses, except aeronautical mobile. The winning bidder was not a small entity. Wireless Telephony. Wireless telephony includes cellular, personal Start Printed Page communications services, and specialized mobile radio telephony carriers.

Thus under this category and the associated small business size standard, the majority of firms can be considered small.

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According to Trends in Telephone Service data, carriers reported that they were engaged in wireless telephony. Thus, using available data, we estimate that the majority of wireless firms can be considered small. Broadband Personal Communications Service. The broadband personal communications services PCS spectrum is divided into six frequency blocks designated A through F, and the Commission has held auctions for each block. There were 90 winning bidders that claimed small business status in the first two C-Block auctions.

A total of 93 bidders that claimed small and very small business status won approximately 40 percent of the 1, licenses in the first auction for the D, E, and F Blocks. Of the 35 winning bidders in that auction, 29 claimed small business status. Of the 24 winning bidders in that auction, 16 claimed small business status and won licenses.

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Advanced Wireless Services. Narrowband Personal Communications Services. In that auction, five bidders won Metropolitan Trading Areas and nationwide licenses. Lower MHz Band Licenses. The Commission previously adopted criteria for defining three groups of small businesses for purposes of determining their eligibility for special provisions such as bidding credits. Of the licenses available for auction, licenses were won by winning bidders. Seventy-two of the winning bidders claimed small business, very small business, or entrepreneur status and won a total of licenses.

All three winning bidders claimed small business status. In , the Commission conducted Auction 92, which offered 16 lower MHz band licenses that had been made available in Auction 73 but either remained unsold or were licenses on which a winning bidder defaulted. Two of the seven winning bidders in Auction 92 claimed very small business status, winning a total of four licenses.

Upper MHz Band Licenses.

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Dunning, J. Influenced by the work of Buckley and Casson , Dunning extended his theory to explain the use of locationai and ownership advantages within the firm as contrasted to selling them in their own right to foreign firms. If costs increase, they can increase prices, reduce costs, or move to a lower cost location. The Commission has observed inappropriate postings that imply that occupational limits are exceeded far outside areas that approach the general population limit. Various numerical models of humans both male and female of different age groups have been developed, and presumably CAD models of devices can also be made available.

Five of these bidders were small businesses that won a total of 26 licenses. A second auction of MHz Guard Band licenses was held in All eight of the licenses auctioned were sold to three bidders. One of these bidders was a small business that won a total of two licenses.

Specialized Mobile Radio. The Commission adopted small business size standards for the purpose of determining eligibility for bidding credits in auctions of Specialized Mobile Radio SMR geographic area licenses in the MHz and MHz bands. In , the Commission held a second auction of MHz SMR licenses and three winning bidders identifying themselves as very small businesses won 7 licenses.

One bidder claiming small business status won five licenses. Eleven bidders who won licenses for the General Category channels in the MHz SMR band qualified as small or very small businesses. Thus, combining all four auctions, 41 winning bidders for geographic licenses in the MHz SMR band claimed to be small businesses. In addition, there are numerous incumbent site-by-site SMR licensees and licensees with extended implementation authorizations in the and MHz bands.

In addition, we do not know how many of these firms have or fewer employees. Phase I licensing was conducted by lotteries in and There are approximately 1, such non-nationwide licensees and four nationwide licensees currently authorized to operate in the MHz band. The Commission has not developed a small business size standard for small entities specifically applicable to such incumbent MHz Phase I licensees. To estimate the number of such licensees that are small businesses, the Commission applies the small business size standard under the SBA rules applicable.

The SBA has deemed a wireless business to be small if it has 1, or fewer employees.